In recent years, the world of education has found itself facing a series of changes to meet the increasingly demanding needs of the world in which we live. From a methodological point of view, a series of innovative didactics have been created that detach themselves from the frontal and transmissive lesson of knowledge, favouring an active didactics where the student is the centre of the learning process. According to Parisi, in fact, the problems are linked to the change in society: “If the school does not change while society changes, it is inevitable that the school enters into a radical crisis. It prepares children for a society that no longer exists. The limit of the current efforts to change society is that they are mostly directed to make up for delays and inadequacies in the school compared to the society that existed until yesterday”. (Parisi, 1997, p. 493-494). This article presents the results of field research aimed at verifying the effects of active and competence-based teaching in two primary school classes (second and fifth). To this end, the participating subjects were subjected, ex ante and ex post, to the administration of tests that verify the cognitive functioning of the subjects, but also their approach and motivation to study. The results show an increase in the above dimensions for the experimental groups, compared to peer control groups, suggesting that such didactic interventions may have both a direct effect on the subjects’ learning, but also an empowerment effect of transversal psychological and neuropsychological dimensions.